Laboratory of microbiology

The special focus of the Laboratory of microbiology resides in clinical, molecular and environmental microbiology. Particular emphasis is on the studies of new types of antibacterial materials based upon nanomaterials, peptides, proteins, coordinating compounds and composites.

These materials serve as alternatives to conventional antibiotics or, the other way round, they improve the efficiency of antibiotics against resistant bacterial pathogens. Understanding the mechanism of antibiotic resistance on the molecular level and overcoming the same by new types of materials, as well as targeting these materials upon pathogens without affecting the surrounding microbiome, is yet another research objective of the lab. Last but not least, the investigation aims at the identification of microorganisms from clinical and veterinary samples. The obtained microbial cultures are subject to genotyping and characterization as to their antibiotic resistance and stored in the laboratory collection of bacterial cultures.

Laboratoř mikrobiologie

The laboratory is equipped with the bacterial growth analyzers, an automatic testing device determining the sensitivity to antibiotics, advanced incubators for the cultivation of microorganisms, various microscopic techniques, a flow cytometer and devices for molecular biological techniques (PCR, sequencing, cloning).

Kristyna Smerkova

Ing. Kristýna Šmerková, PhD.

Head – Laboratory of microbiology
Assistant Professor

Phone: 420 545 133 293
Address: ÚCB AF, Zemědělská 1, 61300 Brno – Building D
Office: BA02N3011

Team members


Topics of Ph.D. theses


  • Nanomaterials and new types of antimicrobials as an alternative to antibiotic preparations
  • Study of microbiome in healthy and mastitis cows
  • Mechanism of bacterial resistance to antimicrobial nanomaterials
  • Influence of metallic and semi-metallic nanomaterials on the development of bacterial resistance
  • Free topic – if interested, contact the head of the research group



  • CZ.02.2.69/0.0/0.0/19_073/0016670 Igráček: Multi-omics approach to study effects of agriculturally-used zinc on Escherichia coli: Risks assessment of bacterial resistance evolution
  • MŠMT: Multioborový výzkum pro zvýšení aplikačního potenciálu nanomateriálů v zemědělské praxi. 2018-2022.
  • MENDELU: Rast baktérií a tvorba bakteriálneho biofilmu na materiáloch z titanu a nehrdzavejúcej ocele so špecifickou povrchovou úpravou (AF-IGA2020-IP029)
  • MENDELU: Nanostructured TiO2 anatase-brookite – in vitro toxicity and  antimicrobial activity, comprehensive study (AF-IGA2020-IP068)
  • Mendelu: Vliv kombinace polynenasycených mastných kyselin n-3 a nanočástic na hojení kožních ran u modelového organizmu. 2019-2020.
  • MENDELU: Studium vzniku bakteriální resistence k uhlíkovým nanomateriálům (AF-IGA2019-IP051)



  • 1. Ussia, M.; Urso, M.; Dolezelikova, K.; Michalkova, H.; Adam, V.; Pumera, M., Active Light-Powered Antibiofilm ZnO Micromotors with Chemically Programmable Properties. Adv. Funct. Mater. 2021, 10.
  • 2. Muchova, J.; Hearnden, V.; Michlovska, L.; Vistejnova, L.; Zavadakova, A.; Smerkova, K.;
    Kociova, S.; Adam, V.; Kopel, P.; Vojtova, L., Mutual influence of selenium nanoparticles and FGF2-STAB(R) on biocompatible properties of collagen/chitosan 3D scaffolds: in vitro and ex ovoevaluation. J. Nanobiotechnol. 2021, 19 (1), 16.
  • 3. Bezdekova, J.; Vodova, M.; Dolezelikova, K.; Zitka, J.; Smerkova, K.; Zitka, O.; Adam, V.; Vaculovicova, M., Detection of microbial contamination based on uracil-selective synthetic receptors. Talanta 2021, 224, 7.
  • 4. Smerkova, K.; Dolezelikova, K.; Bozdechova, L.; Heger, Z.; Zurek, L.; Adam, V., Nanomaterials with active targeting as advanced antimicrobials. Wiley Interdiscip. Rev.-Nanomed. Nanobiotechnol. 2020, 12 (5), 25.
  • 5. Monikh, F. A.; Chupani, L.; Smerkova, K.; Bosker, T.; Cizar, P.; Krzyzanek, V.; Richtera, L.; Franek, R.; Zuskova, E.; Skoupy, R.; Darbha, G. K.; Vijver, M.; Valsami-Jones, E.; Peijnenburg, W., Engineered nanoselenium supplemented fish diet: toxicity comparison with ionic selenium and stability against particle dissolution, aggregation and release. Environ.-Sci. Nano 2020, 7 (8), 2325-2336.
  • 6. Kociova, S.; Dolezelikova, K.; Horky, P.; Skalickova, S.; Baholet, D.; Bozdechova, L.; Vaclavkova, E.; Belkova, J.; Nevrkla, P.; Skladanka, J.; Do, T.; Zitka, O.; Haddad, Y.; Kopel, P.; Zurek, L.; Adam, V.; Smerkova, K., Zinc phosphate-based nanoparticles as alternatives to zinc oxide in diet of weaned piglets. J. Anim. Sci. Biotechnol. 2020, 11 (1), 16.
  • 7. Gagic, M.; Kociova, S.; Smerkova, K.; Michalkova, H.; Setka, M.; Svec, P.; Pribyl, J.; Masilko, J.; Balkova, R.; Heger, Z.; Richtera, L.; Adam, V.; Milosavljevic, V., One-pot synthesis of natural amine-modified biocompatible carbon quantum dots with antibacterial activity. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 2020, 580, 30-48.
  • 8. Dorazilova, J.; Muchova, J.; Smerkova, K.; Kociova, S.; Divis, P.; Kopel, P.; Vesely, R.; Pavlinakova, V.; Adam, V.; Vojtova, L., Synergistic Effect of Chitosan and Selenium Nanoparticles on Biodegradation and Antibacterial Properties of Collagenous Scaffolds Designed for Infected Burn Wounds. Nanomaterials 2020, 10 (10), 21.
  • 9. Bilek, O.; Fialova, T.; Otahal, A.; Adam, V.; Smerkova, K.; Fohlerova, Z., Antibacterial activity of AgNPs-TiO2 nanotubes: influence of different nanoparticle stabilizers. RSC Adv. 2020, 10 (72), 44601-44610.
  • 10. Bezdekova, J.; Zemankova, K.; Hutarova, J.; Kociova, S.; Smerkova, K.; Adam, V.; Vaculovicova, M., Magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers used for selective isolation and detection of Staphylococcus aureus. Food Chem. 2020, 321, 8.
  • 11. Videnska, P.; Smerkova, K.; Zwinsova, B.; Popovici, V.; Micenkova, L.; Sedlar, K.; Budinska, E., Stool sampling and DNA isolation kits affect DNA quality and bacterial composition following 16S rRNA gene sequencing using MiSeq Illumina platform. Sci Rep 2019, 9, 14.
  • 12. Sur, V. P.; Kominkova, M.; Buchtova, Z.; Dolezelikova, K.; Zitka, O.; Moulick, A., CdSe QD Biosynthesis in Yeast Using Tryptone-Enriched Media and Their Conjugation with a Peptide Hecate for Bacterial Detection and Killing. Nanomaterials 2019, 9 (10), 15.
  • 13. Jelinkova, P.; Mazumdar, A.; Sur, V. P.; Kociova, S.; Dolezelikova, K.; Jimenez, A. M. J.; Koudelkova, Z.; Mishra, P. K.; Smerkova, K.; Heger, Z.; Vaculovicova, M.; Moulick, A.; Adam, V., Nanoparticle-drug conjugates treating bacterial infections. J. Control. Release 2019, 307, 166-185.
  • 14. Jamroz, E.; Kopel, P.; Tkaczewska, J.; Dordevic, D.; Jancikova, S.; Kulawik, P.; Milosavljevic, V.; Dolezelikova, K.; Smerkova, K.; Svec, P.; Adam, V., Nanocomposite Furcellaran Films-the Influence of Nanofillers on Functional Properties of Furcellaran Films and Effect on Linseed Oil Preservation. Polymers 2019, 11 (12), 17.
  • 15. Horky, P.; Skalickova, S.; Urbankova, L.; Baholet, D.; Kociova, S.; Bytesnikova, Z.; Kabourkova, E.; Lackova, Z.; Cernei, N.; Gagic, M.; Milosavljevic, V.; Smolikova, V.; Vaclavkova, E.; Nevrkla, P.; Knot, P.; Krystofova, O.; Hynek, D.; Kopel, P.; Skladanka, J.; Adam, V.; Smerkova, K., Zincphosphate-based nanoparticles as a novel antibacterial agent: in vivo study on rats after dietary exposure. J. Anim. Sci. Biotechnol. 2019, 10, 12.
  • 16. Horky, P.; Skalickova, S.; Smerkova, K.; Skladanka, J., Essential Oils as a Feed Additives: Pharmacokinetics and Potential Toxicity in Monogastric Animals. Animals 2019, 9 (6), 15.
  • 17. Bytesnikova, Z.; Richtera, L.; Smerkova, K.; Adam, V., Graphene oxide as a tool for antibiotic-resistant gene removal: a review. Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 2019, 26 (20), 20148-20163.
  • 18. Buchtelova, H.; Skubalova, Z.; Strmiska, V.; Michalek, P.; Kociova, S.; Smerkova, K.; Kruszynski, R.; Bienko, A.; Kaj, M.; Lewinska, A.; Bienko, D.; Malik-Gajewska, M.; Milosavljevic, V.; Kopel, P.; Heger, Z.; Adam, V., Synthesis and structural characterization of antimicrobial binuclear copper (II) coordination compounds bridged by hydroxy- and/or thiodipropionic acid. J. Inorg. Biochem. 2019, 191, 8-20.
  • 19. Jelinkova, P.; Vesely, R.; Cihalova, K.; Hegerova, D.; Ananbeh, H. A. A.; Richtera, L.; Smerkova, K.; Brtnicky, M.; Kynicky, J.; Moulick, A.; Adam, V., Effect of arsenic (III and V) on oxidative stress parameters in resistant and susceptible Staphylococcus aureus. Environ. Res. 2018, 166, 394-401.
  • 20. Skalickova, S.; Milosavljevic, V.; Cihalova, K.; Horky, P.; Richtera, L.; Adam, V., Selenium nanoparticles as a nutritional supplement. Nutrition 2017, 33, 83-90.
  • 21. Hegerova, D.; Vesely, R.; Cihalova, K.; Kopel, P.; Milosavljevic, V.; Heger, Z.; Hynek, D.; Guran, R.; Vaculovicova, M.; Sedlacek, P.; Adam, V., Antimicrobial Agent Based on Selenium Nanoparticles and Carboxymethyl Cellulose for the Treatment of Bacterial Infections. J. Biomed. Nanotechnol. 2017, 13 (7), 767-777.
  • 22. Cihalova, K.; Hegerova, D.; Jimenez, A. M.; Milosavljevic, V.; Kudr, J.; Skalickova, S.; Hynek, D.; Kopel, P.; Vaculovicova, M.; Adam, V., Antibody-free detection of infectious bacteria using quantum dots-based barcode assay. J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal. 2017, 134, 325-332.
  • 23. Cihalova, K.; Hegerova, D.; Dostalova, S.; Jelinkova, P.; Krejcova, L.; Milosavljevic, V.; Krizkova, S.; Kopel, P.; Adam, V., Particle-based immunochemical separation of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus with indirect electrochemical detection of labeling oligonucleotides. Anal. Methods 2016, 8 (25), 5123-5128.
  • 24. Kominkova, M.; Michalek, P.; Cihalova, K.; Guran, R.; Cernei, N.; Nejdl, L.; Smerkova, K.; Dostalova, S.; Chudobova, D.; Heger, Z.; Vesely, R.; Gumulec, J.; Kynicky, J.; Xhaxhiu, K.; Zitka, O.; Adam, V.; Kizek, R., Study of Linkage between Glutathione Pathway and the Antibiotic Resistance of Escherichia coli from Patients' Swabs. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16 (4), 7210-7229.
  • 25. Chudobova, D.; Cihalova, K.; Skalickova, S.; Zitka, J.; Rodrigo, M. A. M.; Milosavljevic, V.; Hynek, D.; Kopel, P.; Vesely, R.; Adam, V.; Kizek, R., 3D-printed chip for detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus labeled with gold nanoparticles. Electrophoresis 2015, 36 (3), 457-466.
  • 26. Chudobova, D.; Cihalova, K.; Jelinkova, P.; Zitka, J.; Nejdl, L.; Guran, R.; Klimanek, M.; Adam, V.; Kizek, R., Effects of Stratospheric Conditions on the Viability, Metabolism and Proteome of Prokaryotic Cells. Atmosphere 2015, 6 (9), 1290-1306.
  • 27. Chudobova, D.; Cihalova, K.; Guran, R.; Dostalova, S.; Smerkova, K.; Vesely, R.; Gumulec, J.; Masarik, M.; Heger, Z.; Adam, V.; Kizek, R., Influence of microbiome species in hard-to-heal wounds on disease severity and treatment duration. Braz. J. Infect. Dis. 2015, 19 (6), 604-613.
  • 28. Cihalova, K.; Chudobova, D.; Michalek, P.; Moulick, A.; Guran, R.; Kopel, P.; Adam, V.; Kizek, R., Staphylococcus aureus and MRSA Growth and Biofilm Formation after Treatment with Antibiotics and SeNPs. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16 (10), 24656-24672.
  • 29. Nejdl, L.; Kudr, J.; Cihalova, K.; Chudobova, D.; Zurek, M.; Zalud, L.; Kopecny, L.; Burian, F.; Ruttkay-Nedecky, B.; Krizkova, S.; Konecna, M.; Hynek, D.; Kopel, P.; Prasek, J.; Adam, V.; Kizek, R., Remote-controlled robotic platform ORPHEUS as a new tool for detection of bacteria in the environment. Electrophoresis 2014, 35 (16), 2333-2345.
  • 30. Chudobova, D.; Cihalova, K.; Dostalova, S.; Ruttkay-Nedecky, B.; Rodrigo, M. A. M.; Tmejova, K.; Kopel, P.; Nejdl, L.; Kudr, J.; Gumulec, J.; Krizkova, S.; Kynicky, J.; Kizek, R.; Adam, V., Comparison of the effects of silver phosphate and selenium nanoparticles on Staphylococcus aureus growth reveals potential for selenium particles to prevent infection. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 2014, 351 (2), 195-201.




  • Dolezelikova, K., Bytesnikova, Z., Pečenka, J., Penazova, E., Ondreas, F., Smerkova, K., Eichmeier, A., Richtera, L., Baranek, M., Heger, Z., Adam, V. Nanoparticles as New Weapons in the War Against Antibiotic Resistant Bacterial Strains. In 3rd Annual Conference of the EuroXanth COST Action: book of abstracts . Brno: Mendelova univerzita v Brně, 2019, s. 61. ISBN 978-80-7509-672-2.
  • Dolezelikova, K. Effect of Dietary Zinc Nanoparticles on Intestinal Microbiome of Piglets. In 11th International Conference on Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases: abstracts. Los  Angeles: Omics Publishing Group, 2019, s. 21.
  • Kociova, S., Dolezelikova, K., Bozdechova, L., Zurek, L., Smerkova, K. Genotype and Phenotype Characterization of Staphylococci Isolated from Patient’s Wounds. In 11th International Conference on Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases: abstracts. Los Angeles: Omics Publishing Group, 2019, s. 34.
  • Moulick, A., Cihalova, K., Milosavljević, V., Kopel, P., Adam, V., Heger, Z., Kizek, R. Preparation and Antimicrobial Activity of Nucleobase-Conjugated CdTe / ZnSe Core / Shell Quantum Dots. In NANOCON 2015: Conference Proceedings. Ostrava: Tanger Ltd., 2015, s. 537–541. ISBN 978-80-87294-63-5.
  • Hegerova, D., Cihalova, K., Dostálová, S., Kopel, P., Kizek, R. Selenium Nanoparticles and Evaluation of Their Antimicrobial Activity on Bacterial Isolates Obtained From Clinical Specimens. In NANOCON 2015: Conference Proceedings. Ostrava: Tanger Ltd., 2015, s. 571–577. ISBN 978-80-87294-63-5.
  • Cihalova, K., Chudobova, D., Michalek, P., Moulick, A., Kopel, P., Adam, V., Kizek, R. Effect of antibiotics and complex with selenium nanoparticles on viability and formation of biofilms by non-resistant and resistant Staphylococcus aureus. 2nd World Congress on Targeting Microbiota. 2014. s. 78. ISBN 978 2-35609-092-8.


Another important creative activity:


  • MENDELOVA UNIVERZITA V BRNĚ a VÝZKUMNÝ ÚSTAV ŽIVOČIŠNÉ VÝROBY, v.v.i. V UHŘÍNĚVSI. Metodika modifikace a syntézy nanokomplexů zinku pro dietní využití u hospodářských zvířat. Autoři: HORKÝ, Pavel, ŠMERKOVÁ, Kristýna, KOPEL, Pavel, HYNEK, David, KABOURKOVÁ, Eliška, BYTEŠNÍKOVÁ, Zuzana, KALHOTKA, Libor, ZEMAN, Ladislav, NEVRKLA, Pavel, ČÁSLAVOVÁ, Iva, VÁCLAVKOVÁ, Eva, SKLÁDANKA, Jiří a ADAM, Vojtěch. Česká republika. Certifikovaná metodika 978- 80-7509-535-0. 2018-01-26.
  • MENDEL UNIVERSITY IN BRNO. Antibacterial preparation based on graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide containing nanoparticles of metals and semi-metals. Inventor: KOPEL, Pavel; CHUDOBOVÁ, Dagmar; ČÍHALOVÁ, Kristýna; KIZEK, René; ADAM, Vojtěch; CZ. Užitný vzor číslo 28443, Úřad průmyslového vlastnictví. 07. 07. 2015. Dostupné z:
  • MENDEL UNIVERSITY IN BRNO. Complex of biopolymer substance with selenium nanoparticles and antibiotic drugs with antibacterial effect. Inventor: KOPEL, Pavel; MILOSAVLJEVIĆ, Vedran; MOULICK, Amitava; CHUDOBOVÁ, Dagmar; ČÍHALOVÁ, Kristýna; KIZEK, René; ADAM, Vojtěch; CZ. Užitný vzor číslo 26981, Úřad průmyslového vlastnictví. 26. 05. 2014. Dostupné z:
  • MENDEL UNIVERSITY IN BRNO. Equipment for the detection of microorganisms. Inventor: ČÍHALOVÁ, Kristýna; CHUDOBOVÁ, Dagmar; NEJDL, Lukáš; KUDR, Jiří; KOPEL, Pavel; ZÍTKA, Ondřej; RUTTKAY-NEDECKÝ, Branislav; KIZEK, René; ADAM, Vojtěch; CZ. Užitný vzor číslo 26412, Úřad průmyslového vlastnictví. 03. 02. 2014. Dostupné z: